Open Joint Stock Company Military Industrial Corporation Scientific and Production Machine Building Association is one of the leading space and rocketry companies of Russia , which has realized more than 50 large scale projects, including three national defense programs:

  • Arming the Navy with cruise missile complexes capable to be launched from surface, underwater and ground platforms:
  • Arming the strategic nuclear forces with intercontinental ballistic rockets, development of launch vehicles,
  • Development of space systems and spacecraft, automatic and manned orbital stations in the interests of Ministry of Defense.

Development of missiles and rockets became a basic activity of the enterprise and started in 1944 under leadership of Vladimir Nikolaevitch Chelomey, when a design bureau for flying bomb development was established on the basis of Experimental Design Bureau at Aviation Factory No.51, the head of which was earlier Mr. N.N. Polikarpov.



Within the period from 1944 to 1953 the company's specialists designed, manufactured and carried out the flight trials of pilotless vehicles with pulsejet motors (10 Õ , 12 Õ , 14 Õ , 16 Õ ) to kill objects and targets at considerable distance from air-borne platforms. This new weapon was deployed on aircraft Ò u-2, Ò u-4 and P å -8. Then developments of flying bombs ware transferred under responsibility of Mikoyan Design Bureau, where they did not last long. 

 

CM 10Õ CM 16Õ

Since 1984 the enterprise was headed by Director General and Designer General Dr. Herbert Alexandrovich Yefremov.

In 1954 a Special Design Group was organized in Tushino on the basis of factory No.500 under leadership of V.N. Chelomey, and it got a task to put a ground-based flying bomb 10 ÕÍ into commission. Specialists working in Design Bureau in the period of 1944-1953 became a core of this group.

However, not limiting himself by the frames of this work, V.N. Chelomey submitted proposal to the government to take a part in the competition for development and creation of the next generation weapons, viz. shock cruise supersonic missiles to equip Naval submarines. Academician Chelomey proposed to use an armory complex equipped by original missile with a turbine jet engine.

A peculiar feature of the proposed missile design was its capability to be deployed with folded fins in a small-sized pressurized cylindrical container in a submarine. The missile would be launched from the same container after submarine coming to sea surface; the fins would unfold automatically and synchronously at the initial stage of the flight just after missile exit out of container. This novel idea ensured victory of the company in the contest.

In year 1955 the Special Design Bureau became the USSR Experimental Design Bureau No.52 and the staff was moved to town of Reutov , Moscow region to the territory of mechanical factory.

Great efforts were taken to develop missile P-5. Sea borne naval complexes (P-5, P-5 Ä ) and ground-based ones ( Ñ -5) with cruise missiles were developed and commissioned to attack targets located at the sea shore, as well as deep in the enemy's territory. The national Navy was armed with advanced menacing weapon, and the Soviet Union received the means to deter American ambitions in the period of Cold War.

The experience gained enabled simultaneous designing and testing of P-6 and P-35 complexes with anti-ship homing cruise missiles which had selective killing capabilities of enemy ships located over the radio horizon.
Submarines of 644, 651, 665, 659, 675 and 644-D projects were armed with P-5, P-5D and P-6 complexes, P-35 complex and its derivative «Progress» were deployed on surface ships 58 («Grozny», «Admiral Golovko», «Admiral Fokin», «Varyag») and 1134 («Vice-Admiral Zozulya», «Vice-Admiral Drozd», «Sevastopol», «Vladivistok»), ground-based mobile and stationary complexes.

 

ASCM P-5 ASCM P-6
ASCM P-35

 

ASCM P-35.

 

In 1960-s the company developed missile weapon complexes with homing missiles launched under water. First such complex Ametist was commissioned to Navy in 1968. It was deployed on submarines of 661 and 670 projects.

 

ASCM Ametist ASCM Granit

ASCM Malakhit ASCM Bazalt

 

Within the next years the company developed and commissioned to Navy missile weapon complexes «Malakhit» and «Granit» with anti-ship homing cruise missiles fit for any platform (submarines or ships) and type of launch (underwater or surface) to attack all classes of ships including large ones under intensive enemy counteraction.

Complex Bazalt, which substituted P-6 system in 1970s, was deployed on submarines of 675 ÌÊ project, as well as on cruisers of 1164, 1143, 1143.4. In 1987 the missile weapon complex with upgraded anti-ship missiles Bazalt was commissioned to Navy. The complex was installed on atomic submarines of 675 MKV project. According to governmental decree of 1987 these missiles armed missile cruisers of. 1164 project including flagship of the Black Sea fleet, cruiser Moscow , and atomic aircraft carrying cruiser of 1143.4 project.

«Granit» complex was inducted to Navy in 1983. Due to this complex Russia at present has unique formation of cruising atomic submarines capable to fulfill any missions in the World Ocean .

In 2002 the company commissioned its latest development to the Russian Navy: an anti-ship cruise missile of 4-th generation.
Development of long range missile weapon complexes for the Navy invoked creation of a global sea surveillance system to provide target designation data about over-the-horizon targets to these weapon platforms, when the complexes were used against mobile sea-borne targets.

 

Launch of Granit ASM from cruiser "Peter the Great"

 

Spacecraft with on-board radar for global sea surveillance

 

It was supposed that sea surveillance satellites would be brought to the orbit by launch vehicles of medium class developed by the company. This launch vehicle was also to deliver to space the first in the world maneuvering satellite, which development and building were under way at the company.

The launch vehicle was designated UR-200 and it had the launch weight about 140 t. On November 4, 1963 the first launch of the new rocket took place. Then 8 more successful launches followed to validate high performance of the rocket and eminent capabilities of the staff. However, the overt launch of the rocket complex did not meet requirements of that time and its further development was terminated.

In connection with wider circle of missions and augmentation of work scope in the period of 1958-1962, a king of consortium was founded including several companies as branch offices, namely: GOS NII 642 (now FSUE «OKB«Vympel»), OKB-23 (now KB «Salyut» GKNPTs named after Khrunichev), KB of factory ¹ 301 (now NPO named after Lavochkin), special design bureaus at aviation factories in Dubna and Saratov .

All this catalyzed development of the above projects and programs and ensured their implementation on the highest level, since the specialists of these enterprises together with employees of design bureau OKB-52 introduced «aviation approach» to equipment creation, which meant comprehensive tests of vehicles on the ground before flight trials.

To achieve these great objectives, building of the largest design experimental and production center was started in 1960 in the company's territory along with construction of test facilities for ground tests of various vehicles.

 

In 1963 the first in the world maneuvering satellite "Polyet-1"was launched. At the same time the company was developing a satellite system for anti-satellite defense.

Manned space programs in the interests of National Defense Ministry were simultaneously begun.

First developments of manned spacecraft (space glinder, rocket glinder) demonstrated that to ensure full-scale, safe and efficient manned program, there was a need in a launch vehicle with the launch weight of 500 t. which would be capable to bring to the orbit about 15 tons of payload. This carrier designated UR-500 was also developed in 1960s. Within the period of 1965-1968, when the rocket underwent trials in two and three stage versions, four scientific stations “Proton” with weight varying from 12 to 17 tons were launched into space to investigate particles of high and super high energy.

 

Rocket glinder. Project of 1960s Light space plane. Project of 1980s

 

Proton station Manned spacecraft for the moon orbiting
with application of "Proton" LV.
The project of 1964

 

Advanced technical solutions implemented in rocket UR-500 allowed design bureau OKB-52 to raise the issue of building three stage launch-vehicle for the manned project on flying around the moon (project LK-1) and within the short time to create heavy launch vehicle UR-500 Ê , named later “Proton”.       

From here it was Proton launch-vehicle, which ensured launches of manned space stations like “Salute” family, as well as automatic stations “Almaz” , «Venus», «Zond», «Luna», «Mars», the basic compartment and other modules of “Mir” complex, great number of telecommunication and military spacecraft and two main modules of International Space Station.

Versatility of UR-200 and UR-500 allowed to use them not only as a launch vehicle but also as combat missiles with ballistic and so called “global” warheads starting from the orbit and capable to do maneuvers in atmosphere.

 

To validate technical solutions used during designing of orbital maneuvering warhead (projects À B-200 for IBM UR-200 and À B-500 for UR-500) the company created vehicle Ì P-1 maneuvering in atmosphere at high hypersonic speeds by means of aerodynamic controls, and it was successfully launched in 1961. Project UR-200 assembled at the company a group of experts in the field of rocket production, established new type of cooperation between subcontractors and opened the way to master new technologies for intercontinental ballistic missiles of light class, but unlike UR-200, this rocket was kept and launched from a silo.

The experience gained from 1963 to 1967 allowed the company to develop and commission the missile complex with canisterized intercontinental ballistic missile UR-100 of light class. By1970 about 1000 rockets UR-100 were put on combat duty and that ensured the parity between strategic forces of our country and USA . Till the middle of 1980s the company developed and put into service several versions of missile complexes with IBM of this class (UR-100 Ê , UR-100 Ó , UR-100N, UR-100N U ÒÒÕ ). Missile complex with IBM UR-100N U ÒÒÕ (RS-18B) has been in operation till today. Its life has been extended to thirty one years.

 

 

The year of 1965 marked a new era of space exploration by the company and that was the development of manned rocket and space complex “Almaz” for global observation of the Earth surface from space. Complex Almaz was supposed to be injected into the orbit by UR-500 launch vehicle.
Almaz rocket and space complex included orbital manned station, a replenishing vehicle, a reusable re-entry vehicle to deliver the crew to the orbit and bring it back to the Earth, a capsule to bring information carriers to the Earth. All elements of the rocket space complex and its ground infrastructure underwent full scale ground testing and flight trials.

«Almaz» system was designed and developed at the time of UR-100 missiles mass deployment. It was to help in efficient selection of point targets deep inside the enemy's territory, including those camouflaged. In those days it was considered that only high resolution photography controlled by a human could detect these targets. «Almaz» station was designed as a photocamera carrier with focal distance about 10 m and 2 ì lens diameter.   Photo images from the orbit were to be delivered in specials capsules packed by the crew. The capsules were brought to the station by heavy replenishment vehicle. The replenishment vehicle as a part of reusable re-entry vehicle and functional cargo module, as well as the station itself were injected into the orbit by UR-500 Ê launch vehicle.

 

For testing “Almaz” station, other rockets and space vehicles, the company noticeably augmented its test facilities. A unique vacuum chamber of 600 cubic meter  (VK-600) and thermal structural test facility were put into operation.
At the first stage of Almaz space complex development the crew was brought by “Souz” spacecraft. From 1974 to 1977  five flights took place (2 flights – to «Salyut-3» station and 3 flights – to « Salyut -5» station).
Astronauts Y.P. Artukhin, P.R. Popovich, B.V. Volynov, V.M. Zholobov, V.V. Gorbatko, Y.N. Glazkov worked on-board the stations.

The crews including L.V. Demin, G.V. Saraphanov and V.D. Zudov, V.I. Rozhdestvensky could not dock Soyuz spacecraft with the station because of Soyuz on-board docking system failure.

 

 

Y.P.Artyukhin., P.R.Popovich on-board Salut-3 manned orbital station ////B.V. Volynov, V.M. Zholobov V.V. Gorbatko, Y.N. Glazkov
L.V.Demin, G.V.Sarafanov V.D. Zudov,
V.I. Rozhdestvensky

 

 

Even earlier, in 1970, several station hulls directly from the manufacturer were brought to the Central Design Bureau of Machine Building –rocket and space complex “Energia” to become scientific stations used under the long-term orbital station program («Salyut», « Salyut -4»), and their versions «Salyut -6», « Salyut -7», complex «Mir», which scientific modules were designed on the basis of the functional and cargo module of replenishment vehicle belonging to «Almaz» station.

However, by that time it became clear that military applied missions might be successfully managed by automatic stations. Besides it turned out that so called "human factor" was very expensive and it complicated the equipment operation. When automatic photo reconnaissance was invented the manned space project “Almaz” was terminated and the hardware was modified to become components of an automatic station with a radar on-board.

 

Under this program in 1976 the development of rocket and space system with Almaz-T automatic orbital station began. The orbital station was equipped with a unique on-board high resolution radar transmitting collected images via a radio channel to a ground data receiving station. Almaz- Ò system was meant for complex all-weather round- the- clock observation of the Earth surface to satisfy the program of national Defense Ministry, economy and international cooperation.

Two automatic stations of this family «Cosmos 1870» (1987- 1989) and «Almaz-1» (1991- 1992) were successfully operated in the orbit. «Almaz-1» station helped to investigate the ice conditions near Somov motor ship captured by ice in Antarctica during the polar night, and gave recommendations how to escape from this ice trap. Results of this station flight inspired the company to arrange a data processing center in its territory, as well as a vast and frequently used fund of the Earth surface radar images.

 

Engineering evolution within last decade made a strong requirement to change dimensions of space equipment. It regards to spacecraft and launch vehicles as well. Feeling this demand of the times, NPO Mashinostroyenia came up with the initiative to develop small spacecraft brought to the orbit by launch vehicles converted from latest versions of UR-100 rockets retiring from military service.

Unique expertise in the field of space and missile technologies and continuous scientific and engineering research allowed to make good progress in cooperation with foreign countries. On the basis of Intergovernmental Agreement with India the Russian-Indian joint venture “BrahMos” was founded and is successfully working now.

In November, 2002 President V.V. Putin visited the company. He personally had an opportunity to get convinced that all developments of NPO Mashinostroyenia are remarkable for vitality, innovative and pragmatic nature, real efficiency and great perspectives. Spacecraft and rockets put into operation possess highest quality, reliability and usability. The fact that 6 complexes conceived and developed by the company at different time are now on combat duty.

The Russian President is getting acquainted
with Strela launch vehicle. Photo of 2002
H.A.Yefremov is introducing young specialists of the company,
who receive the Presidential scholarship, to V.V. Putin.
Visit of the Russian President to NPO Mashinostroyenia in 2002.

Today the company's structure comprises Central Design Bureau of Machine Building (CDBMB), pilot machine building factory, subsidiaries, branch offices and auxiliary services.

CDBMB includes R&D and design divisions, R&D centers, instrument making and test sections, complex test benches and laboratories.

 

The pilot machine building factory is a multi-purpose factory with production divisions and relevant services.


 

Complex test benches and laboratories include:
•    laboratories for structural vibration analysis, investigation of dynamic characteristics and vibration test facilities for all articles produced by the company;
•    laboratory for shock strength and stability of articles with the weight less than 60 t;
•    thermal vacuum laboratory simulating space environment, solar radiation and space cold;
•    hydraulic tank for complex hydraulic tests;
•    thermal structural test facilities;
•    several test benches for static strength tests of various structures;
•   complex collimator facility to measure antenna patterns and radar cross sections of various objects

 

 

The company’s official banner with governmental awards. The solemn assembly dedicated to granting the status of a Russian science-city to Reutov.

JSC «MIC «NPO Mashinostroyenia» as a city-making enterprise during last 50 years has been actively influencing Reutov-town development. The Russian Presidential Decree of December 29, 2003 awarded Reutov-town the status of a scientific city of the Russian Federation . The vast potential of scientists, specialists and workers of the scientific city will be used in full measure to maintain the role of Russia as the world leader in the field of high technologies and to ensure the adequate living standard for the citizens.

 NPO Mashinostroyenia work has been highly appreciated. For development of latest weapons the company was rewarded with governmental awards such as: Order of Lenin (June 26, 1959), Order of Labour Red Banner (April 28, 1963), Order of Great October Revolution (August 12, 1976).
Employees of the company, which directly participated in development and building of new equipment, became Heroes of Socialist Labour, winners of Lenin and State Prizes, the USSR Council of Ministers award, the Russian government award, the state award of the Russian Federation named after Marshal G.K.Zhukov. Recently several employees received various degrees of Order «For services to Fatherland».

The function on the occasion of presenting the Presidential commendation